- Allele - An alternate form of a gene: for example, a gene for human hair color may have alleles that cause red or brown hair.
- Chromosome - A cell structure that contains genetic information along strange of DNA.
- DNA Fingerprint - The pattern of DNA fragments obtained by examining a person's unique sequence of DNA base pairs.
- Electrophoresis - A method of separating molecules, such as DNA, according to their size and electrical charge using an electric current passes through a gel containing the samples.
- Gene - A segment of DNA in a chromosome that contains information used to produce a protein, RNA molecule. It is a segment of DNA that codes for a particular physical trait.
- PCR - Polymerase chain reaction. This is a method used to rapidly make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA.
- STR - Short tandem repeat. Repeats of a short DNA sequence (3-5 bases) that are in tandem (next to one another) with varying numbers of repeats found among individuals.
- VNTR - Variable number of tandem repeats. Repeats of a long DNA sequence (5 or more) that are in tandem with varying numbers of repeats found among individuals.