- Comparison microscope - A compound microscope that allows for side by side comparison of two samples.
- Cortex - The region of a hair located outside the medulla containing pigment granules.
- Cuticle - The tough outer covering of a hair composed of overlapping scales.
- Gas Chromatography - A method of separating chemicals to establish their quantities.
- Hair follicle - The actively growing root or base of a hair containing DNA and living cells.
- Hair shaft - Part of the hair above the follicle, contains mitochondrial DNA
- Keratin - A type of fibrous protein that makes up the majority of the cortex of a hair.
- Medulla - The central core of a hair fiber.
- Melanin granules - Bits of pigment found in the cortex of a hair.
- Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - Genetic material in the mitochondria of the cytoplasm of a cell, only inherited from the mother.
- Nuclear DNA - Genetic material in the nucleus of the cell, a combination of DNA from the mother and father.
- Neutron Activation Analysis - A method of analysis that determines composition of elements in a sample.